Rostov Regionis situatedat thesouthern end of the Eastern European Plane and partially in the North Caucasus. It occupies a vast territory in the Lower Don river basin. By the character of the surface, the territory of Rostov Region is a plane divided by river valleys and gullies. The maximum altitude above sea level is 253 meters. In the northern section of the Region lies part of the Central Russian Upland; in the western section is the Eastern part of Donetskiy mountain-range; and in the southeastern section are the Salsko-Manychskaya and Ergeni ridges.

The distance between Moscow and Rostov-on-Donis 1226 kilometers. Thetotal areaof the region is 100.8 thousand square kilometers or 0,6% of the Russian territory. The Region is 470 kilometers north to south and 455 kilometers east to west. The territory occupied by the Rostov Region is equal to the combined territories of Denmark, Belgium and the Netherlands.

The Rostov Region has landand waterborderswith the following regions: Donetsk and Lugansk Regions of Ukraine in the west and northwest (total length of the border is 660 kilometers), Voronezh and Volgograd Regions in the north and northeast, the Republic of Kalmykiya in the east and southeast, and Stavropol and Krasnodar Regions in the south. Rostov Region’s southwest section is washed by the Taganrog Bay of the Azov Sea, having the sea state border with Ukraine.

One of the largest rivers in Europe is the Don river (2 thousand kilometers) runs through the Rostov Region. Also, the Tsymlyansk Reservoir (24 billion cubic meters of water) is situated here. The main tributaries of the Don – Severskiy Donets and Manych – are navigable. Lakes take only 0.4% of the territory of the region.

The region’s territory lies within the steppe zone, only the edge of the southeastern part is a transition zone from steppe to semi-desert. About 5.6% of the region’s territory is covered by woods and bushes. Most of the region’s territory is farmland, mostly on highly fertile black earth.